Urban parks were once thought to be a representation of nature that would promote a better society. Like cities, these parks were subject to modernization: sections of them became segmented and were dedicated to specialized uses. These social-spatial changes are linked to a changing concept of how parks contribute to the improvement of society. Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, where such changes began during the 1880s, is examined as a case study, but the generalizations apply to most large parks in the central cities of American metropolitan areas. Examples of changes are ornamental plant species, a play area for children, athletics for adolescents and adults.
Key words: athletics, modernity, ornamental horticulture, playgrounds, parks, recreation.
DR. YOUNG is Acting Director, Studies in Landscape Architecture at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C.
To contact the author:
Mail: Dr. Terrence Young, Acting Director
Studies in Landscape Architecture
1703 32nd Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
Electronic mail: YOUNGT@DOAKS.ORG